For equivalence relation, just remember the definition: an equivalent relation is a symmetric, reflexive and transitive relation.
Today, I also talked about ‘casting out nines’. It provides an effective way of probabilistic calculation verification.
For instance, if one wants to check whether 961\times 2414=2329854 is correct. For the left hand side, 961\equiv 9+6+1\equiv 7 \mod 9 and 2414\equiv 2+4+1+4=2\mod 9, hence 961\times 2414\equiv 7\times 2=5\mod 9. However, 2329854\equiv 2+3+2+9+8+5+4\equiv 6\mod 9. So the calculation is incorrect.